Medicare Appeals — Filings with the Office of Medicare Hearings and Appeals Switch to a Central Docketing System.
(March 1, 2012): Medicare appeals of denied claims arising out of audits conducted by Zone Program Integrity Contractors (ZPICs) and Recovery Audit Contractors (RACs) has significantly increased as administrative enforcement efforts have expanded around the country. While workloads have generally risen across the board, the number of cases handled from one ZPIC to another has resulted in an enormous disparity in workload for the various Field Offices of the Office of Medicare Hearings and Appeals (OMHA).
I. Medicare Appeals Will Now be Handled Through a “Central Docketing System”:
As a result, OMHA recently switched to a “Central Docketing System” for all pending and new Medicare appeals. Under this new system, all Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearing requests will initially be sent to OMHA’s Central Office in Cleveland, OH. Each appeal will subsequently be assigned to one of the Field Offices – Irvine, CA, Miami, FL or Arlington, VA – or to ALJs in the Central Office, depending on the caseload in each office. Despite assigning appeals to different offices, OMHA is not breaking these appeals into their component parts – individual claims - so “big box” cases will still be handled by one ALJ.
While each Medicare appeal will likely be assigned to an office randomly, OMHA will likely base these assignments on current workloads at each of its offices. Therefore, a provider in Texas or Louisiana, who would previously have always gone before an ALJ in the Miami Field Office, may end up before an ALJ in any of OMHA’s four offices. While this may be disconcerting at first, most ALJ hearings are conducted by phone or video-teleconference nowadays, meaning that the ALJ’s location doesn’t substantially affect how a case is handled. While it may be more difficult to ascertain the procedural habits of a single ALJ (such as in what order to present information or how formal each hearing session is) since you and/or your counsel may go before a wider array of ALJs, Medicare appeals and hearings should generally be handled in the same manner.
II. Responding to a Medicare Overpayment Audit / Filing a Medicare Appeal:
Years ago, it was not uncommon for physicians or members of their staff to represent a practice in a hearing before an ALJ. Unfortunately, those days are long past. While representing ones-self in an ALJ hearing may still be an option in hearings involving a limited number of claims, if the amount in controversy is substantial, there is a high likelihood that one or more representative of the ZPIC will show up at the ALJ hearing and give their reasons for denying the claims at issue. Although the ALJ hearing process is not meant to be adversarial, it often feels like a contested hearing when representatives from a ZPIC or another Medicare contractor choose to participate in the proceeding. Are you prepared to respond to their assertions? If not, it is important to retain qualified and experienced legal counsel to assist you in the matter.
Liles Parker is a full service health law firm with several offices around the country. Representing providers in all stages of Medicare post-payment appeals, our attorneys are well-versed in the administrative appeals process and capable of aggressively handling your case. In addition, we conduct compliance program advising and implementation, as well as mock audits, staff training and health care business transactions. Please call Robert W. Liles at: 1 (800) 475-1906 for a complimentary consultation today.
(December 3, 2010): In recent years, Medicare Administrative Contractors (MACs) have become much more likely to initiate recoupment of alleged overpayments in connection with post-payment audits as soon as they are permitted to do so. The purpose of this article is to examine steps that a health care provider should consider when it is faced with a Medicare appeal and must consider how it will handle the recoupment / repayment issue.
I. Recoupment Considerations When Filing a Medicare Appeal at the Redetermination Level.
CMS’ current recoupment rules effectively vitiate the ability of a provider to use the 120-day period to prepare their case before filing for redetermination appeal. As the limitation on recoupment rules are currently applied, if a health care provider does not file for redetermination appeal within 30 days of the date of the MAC’s demand letter, then on day 41 the contractor will begin recouping the overpayment that is allegedly owed.
As a result, instead of having 120 days to file for redetermination appeal, providers are under significant pressure to file for appeal within the 30 days of the date of the contractor’s overpayment determination letter. To be clear, the 30-day clock does not start when the ZPIC sends out their decision letter. Rather, the clock starts as of the date that is indicated at the top of the MAC’s demand letter, not as of the date that the provider actually receives the demand letter. If the mailing of a MAC post-payment demand letter is delayed, or if the U.S. Postal Service takes longer than normal to deliver the demand letter to the provider (I know, that’s a real stretch of the imagination – nevertheless, just work with me so I can illustrate the problem), the provider won’t even have 30 days to file for redetermination appeal in order to avoid recoupment. Unfortunately, this example is all too real.
In a recent “big box” case we defended, for whatever reason the demand letter was not received by the provider until almost 10 days after the demand letter was dated. As a result, the provider (and our Firm) had to fully assess the ZPIC’s reasons for denial and work up compelling arguments in support of payment in less than 20 days, despite the fact that a provider is supposed to have 120 days after the receipt of the MAC’s demand letter to file for Medicare appeal at the redetermination level.
Notably, if a provider is willing to enter into an extended repayment plan with the MAC (whereby the alleged overpayment is paid out over a 12 – 60 month period), the provider can then take advantage of the full 120 day period to assemble relevant documents, assess applicable coverage and payment guidance and prepare arguments in support of payment. While most providers prefer not to pay anything in recoupment until it is absolutely necessary that they do so, such an approach may be short-sighted. In a number of cases, providers have been unable to track down supporting documentation and assemble persuasive arguments within the 30-day period.
II. Recoupment Considerations When Filing Your Medicare Appeal at the Reconsideration Level.
Once reviewed at redetermination appeal and the MAC sends out its redetermination decision, a health care provider only has 60 days to file for reconsideration appeal if it wishes to avoid any recoupment. Once again, if the provider is willing to enter into an extended repayment plan, it can use the 180-day period permitted by regulation to file its appeal for reconsideration. In many cases, however, the provider insists that we file for reconsideration appeal within the 60 day deadline. Unless the record has been fully assembled, this can be quite problematic. Providers are required to show “good cause” if they wish to have new information (typically in the form of medical records) after the reconsideration level of appeal.
Applying an appeals strategy which attempts to avoid recoupment until the last possible moment only postpones the inevitable. Once a reconsideration decision is issued, most MACs will seek to recoup the overpayment owed by a provider 30 days from the date of the reconsideration decision (not 30 days from the provider’s receipt of the reconsideration decision). While in some cases, we have seen the MAC wait until the current amount owed is recalculated by the ZPIC, the most prudent strategy is to expect for recoupment to begin 30 days from the date of the reconsideration decision letter. Importantly, recoupment will take place regardless of whether a provider files for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) appeal. Therefore, if the provider has not already done so, it is highly recommended that the provider apply for extended repayment as soon as the reconsideration decision has been received.
III. Impact of CMS’ Current Recoupment Policies on Your Medicare Appeal.
Overall, the recoupment policies currently in place provide a short-term “fix” that is all to often taken by providers, possibly to the detriment of the provider’s case. In many cases, the desire to put off any recoupment merely delays the inevitable by a few months. As a result, it is recommended that providers discuss these options with experienced legal counsel and carefully weigh the benefits and disadvantages of each approach before choosing a course of action in connection with your Medicare appeal.
Robert W. Liles and his team of attorneys and paralegals in Washington, D.C., Houston, TX., and San Antonio, TX have handled a wide variety of post-payment Medicare audits around the United States. Our legal professionals have represented health care providers in front of ALJ in each of the four Offices of Medicare Hearings and Appeals handling ALJ level appeals. Please feel free to call us for a free initial consultation. We can be reached at: 1 (800) 475-1906.
 The term “big-box” case is typically used by ALJs and Medicare contractors to described large, multi-claim post-payment audit cases. In approximately 90% of the big-box Medicare appeal cases handled by our Firm, the ZPIC or PSC has taken an allegedly statically relevant sample of between 25 and 200 claims and has extrapolated the overpayments found in this sample to the entire universe of claims. As a result, in a majority of the cases we have handled, the extrapolated damages sought by Medicare often range from $100,000 to $5,000,000.
(September 1, 2010):
I. Introduction — ZPIC Contractors Are Likely to Participate in Your ALJ Hearing:
As previously discussed, after representing health care providers for many years in administrative hearings, involving well over 10,000 Medicare claims this year alone, it has been our experience that Administrative Law Judges (ALJs) remain a provider’s single best opportunity to present its legal, regulatory and factual arguments in support of payment. While there are no guarantees, the ALJs we have practiced before have been attentive, knowledgeable, willing to listen to the provider’s viewpoint, and perhaps most importantly, FAIR. In recent years though, it has become more complicated for a health care provider to present it case during an ALJ hearing. This is due, at least in part, to the fact that ZPIC auditors are now often showing up at the ALJ hearing to advise the Judge the reason(s) they decided to deny your Medicare claims.
II. The Medicare Appeals Hearing Process:
Once a request for an ALJ hearing is filed, the Court generally takes one of three actions. It either:\
Conducts the hearing and issues a decision (either Favorable, Partially Favorable or Unfavorable),
Issues an order of dismissal of the appellant’s request for ALJ hearing, or
Remands a case back to the Qualified Independent Contractor (QIC) for additional necessary action.
When appealing individual claims, a Court may choose to rule on behalf of the provider, without the necessity of a hearing. However, in “big box,” multiple-claim, high dollar cases, a hearing is almost always held unless the appellant requests that the Court base its decision solely on the record, without the benefit fo testimony. When hearings are held, they are usually conducted by teleconference or video-teleconference. Upon request, the Court may (but is not required to) grant an “in-person” hearing. However, it has been our experience that ALJs prefer to conduct hearings by other means.
If a favorable (or, for that matter, unfavorable) ruling is issued by the Court, a number of steps remain before the decision can be effectuated. Medicare contractors (such as Intermediaries and Carriers – now, combined into entities known as “Medicare Administrative Contractors” (MACs)) do not immediately take action based the decision of the Court. Instead, once an ALJ issues the Court’s decision regarding a case, a copy of the ruling is sent by the respective Office of Medicare Hearings and Appeals (OMHA) to an organization known as the “Administrative Qualified Independent Contractor” (AdQIC). The AdQIC is then responsible for reviewing the decision and sending it to the responsible MAC for effectuation.
III. Rise of the AdQIC — A New Factor to Consider in the Medicare Appeals Process:
In 2004, Q2 Administrators (Q2A) was awarded the first task order to serve as an AdQIC under the new administrative appeals process by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). As Q2A’s website reflects, in its capacity as an AdQIC, the contractor is required to develop training and standard work protocols, analyze appeal outcomes, recommend improvements to the appeals process and manage case files.
While the AdQIC does, in fact, perform all of the above functions, the likelihood of their involvement in your case appears to have greatly increased over the past year. In a number of the cases we have handled, the AdQIC has aggressively sought to overturn both favorable legal arguments and holdings by ALJs invalidating fatally flawed statistical extrapolations applied by a Zone Program Integrity Contractor (ZPIC) or Program SafeGuard Contractor (PSC) in a case. While AdQICs do not have the authority to file an appeal with the Medicare Appeals Council (also referred to as the “MAC” — but not to be confused with Medicare Administrative Contractors which are are referred to by CMS as a “MAC”), they have gotten around this pesky issue by sending notices to the MAC outlining their concerns. The MAC has then been reviewing the decisions on its own authority. As a result, the AdQIC has effectively been granted administrative appeal authority, despite the fact that this function is not one of the enumerated tasks outlined for the entity by CMS or by statute.
In light of these developments, it is imperative that you retain counsel who is experienced responding to AdQIC notices (de facto appeals) to the MAC. Unlike other steps in the administrative appeals process, if your ALJ’s decision is challenged by an AdQIC to the MAC, you will have a short, limited amount of time to respond to the AdQIC’s arguments. It is strongly recommended that you work with an attorney who is experienced responding to an AdQIC challenge. An attorney who is knowledgeable of the MAC appeals process can properly advise you of your options at this point in the appeals process.
While the AdQIC’s new perceived role – as overseer and critic of the ALJs – can make the process even more costly and frustrating than usual, it has been our experience that the AdQIC’s legal arguments often mimic the positions taken by other contractors earlier in the process. Notably, we have yet to see (or even hear) of an AdQIC “appeal” of an ALJ decision that was unfavorable to the provider. As a result, we believe it is quite clear that the AdQIC is far from being a “disinterested” party.
IV. Don’t Handle a Medicare Appeals Hearing Alone – Hire an Experienced Attorney:
As Medicare claims audit and assessment efforts increase (through CMS’ use of ZPICs, PSCs and RACs), health care providers will be under increasing pressure to ensure that statutory and regulatory coding and billing requirements are met. Despite your best efforts to remain compliant, you may find that your practice or clinic is subjected to review. Should that occur, we strongly recommend that you retain qualified, experienced legal counsel to represent your interests. Even if you prevail before an ALJ, depending on the reasons relied on by the Court, there is a real chance that the AdQIC may seek to have the Court’s decision overturned by the MAC. When hiring an attorney, be sure and ask him the following:
How much of your law practice involves health law issues?
Please describe the extent of your experience handling large, complex administrative appeals of denied Medicare claims.
How often have you responded to AdQIC appeals of favorable ALJ decisions?
How often have you handled MAC appeals?
Can you provide provider references?
Hopefully, your practice will not face a large administrative appeal of denied Medicare claims. However, should such an event occur, you need to be ready to respond to the contractor’s audit. While there are no guarantees in this business, knowledge of the rules and experience handling administrative appeals may prove essential to increasing the likelihood of your success.
Robert W. Liles and other Liles Parker attorneys have extensive experiences representing Part A and Part B health care providers in connection with Medicare appeals. Should you require additional information regarding these issues, call Robert for a free consultation. He can be reached at: 1 (800) 475-1906.
(August 30, 2010):
I. Introduction — “Medical Necessity” Issues Presented:
Health Data Insights (HDI), the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) responsible for auditing health care providers in Region D, has announced it will immediately begin reviews on previously approved projects which involve the medical necessity of selected inpatient DRG payments. A complete list of the medical necessity “issues” currently being examined by HDI can be found on its Website.
II. Scope of Responsibilities Assigned to Health Date Insights:
RACs, such as HDI, contract with the CMS to perform post-payment reviews of Medicare claims to find overpayments (and theoretically, underpayments in return for a percentage (from 9 percent to 12.5 percent) of the amounts recovered. Put simply, they “eat what they kill.” HDI was awarded responsibility for handling Region D audits. Region D consists of 17 States and 3 U.S. territories (Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Iowa, Idaho, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Guam, American Samoa and Northern Marianas). HDI’s contingency fee contract award dollar amount is 9.49% according to CMS. The 29 DRGs where HDI will be examining “medical necessity” requirements, include certain procedures related to:
Nervous System Disorders
Endocine, Nutritional & Metabolism Disorders
Kidney & Urinary Tract Disorders, and
Blood & Immunological Disorders
III. Provider Concerns:
A continuing concern of health care providers is that the RAC determinations of medical necessity will be performed by personnel with little, if any, specific knowledge of the specific claims at issue. Given the RAC business model, providers remain worried that audits will not reflect a fair and reasonable application of applicable coverage requirements. This is especially worrisome in light of the fact that approximately 41 percent of overpayments in the demonstration project were due to medical necessity determinations.
III. Audit and Appeal Considerations:
As set out CMS’ June 2010 reported entitled “The Medicare Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) Program — Update to the Evaluation of the 3-Year Demonstration,” as of 03/09/10, the cumulative number of claims with overpayment determinations identified by RACs has grown to 598,238. Notably, only 76,073 of these overpayments were appealed by health care providers. Of the claims appealed, over half were decided in favor of the health care provider. Interestingly, HDI had one of the highest number of claims denials overturned on appeal, in favor of the appealing provider. Four basic steps to be taken when preparing for a RAC audit include:
(1) Monitor issues of interest to the government and its contractors. Are the services you provide currently under scrutiny by RACs and other Medicare contractors? You should keep abreast of current enforcement initiatives and mistakes made by other providers. Learn from their mistakes.
(2) Know where your current weaknesses are and fix them. This typically requires that you conduct an internal audit of your coding, billing and operational practices. Take care when engaging an outside “consultant.” We have seen numerous cases where the consultant conducts an internal assessment and identifies multiple problems with the provider’s prior and current practices. Unfortunately, few consultants consider the fact that their adverse report to the provider will likely not be privileged. As a result, if the provider is ever investigated, the report could easily serve as a roadmap for the government. Prior to conducting an internal audit – call your attorney!
(3) Know your rights. If your practice is audited, know your rights both during the audit and once the audit results are issued by the contractor. There is a fine line between exercising your rights as a provider and being perceived by a contractor as refusing to cooperate in their review. You should immediately call your attorney to clarify which actions must be taken if your practice is subjected to a site visit by a Medicare contractor. The best practice would be for you to call your attorney today and discuss how you should respond in the event of a site visit. CMS takes allegations of non-cooperation very seriously. Should the contractor argue that you refused to cooperate in their efforts, you could find the action taken by the contractor is to seek a revocation of your Medicare number. This is an especially sensitive issue.
(4) Have a firm understanding of how the Medicare appeals process works. Depending on the amount in controversy, you may choose to handle Medicare claims denials internally. As the use of data-mining increases, Medicare contractor reliance on provider profiling will continue to increase. While mere errors or mistakes should be returned to the government (or not appealed is properly denied by the contractor), should you find that claims were improperly denied, we recommend that you appeal such denials. RACs and other Medicare contractors will likely focus on providers with high error rates.
While every case is different, health care providers should consider the following when faced with a RAC audit:
- The scope of RAC audits is expanding. In the past, hospitals and other “low-hanging fruit” were the focus of HDI and other RACs around the country. As a result, some physicians, small practice groups, clinics and other smaller providers have grown complacent in their compliance efforts. This is a mistake, as more issues are identified and approved, the RACs will be expanded the scope of their reviews. Now is the time to get your practice in order.
- ZPICs and PSCs continue to represent a greater danger to small physician practices and health care provider groups. Zone Program Integrity Contractors (ZPICs) and Program SafeGuard Contractors (PSCs) are not subject to the time, audit and service scope limitations imposed on RACs. The implementation of effective compliance efforts will help reduce the likelihood of liability should the practice be audited by a ZPIC, PSC or RAC.
- Beware of “canned” consultant solutions. As a search on Google will readily attest, consulting firms around the country are touting the latest RAC audit “tool” or audit response “template.” We recommend that you exercise caution when retaining any organization that “guarantees” results or seeks to dissuade you from engaging legal counsel support.
- Retain experienced health care counsel. Under the current appeal structure, there is a significant likelihood that your case will eventually be heard by an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ). Importantly, ALJs are lawyers — not typically clinicians. In defending your case, it is strongly recommended that you retain legal counsel, regardless of whether you ultimately decide to work with a consultant or employ a clinician as an expert witness. Legal counsel will be best situated to understand and argue the various legal arguments which may prove essential in winning your case.
While RACs have not represented much of a threat to individual physicians and small practice groups in the past, the future is likely to be quite different. Physicians must already contend with audits by ZPICs, PSCs, Medicaid Integrity Contractors (MICs), Medicaid Fraud Control Unit (MFCU) investigators and Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) contractors. The expansion of the RAC program will further increase the need for statutory and regulatory compliance. Physicians and small practice groups and organizations should avoid the misconception that their limited size and / or relative billings will keep them “off the radar,” thereby limiting their chances of being audited.
IV. ZPICs and PSCs are Continuing to Rely on Statistical Sampling in an Effort to Extrapolate Damages:
In our practice, we have seen a marked increase in the number of solo physicians and small providers groups who have been subjected to pre-payment and post-payment audits of their Medicare billings.
In the case of post-payment reviews, the vast majority of Medicare audits we have worked on have included the statistical extrapolation of damages by ZPICs and PSCs. We expect RACs to follw suit as the number of their audits increase. In defending a post-payment audit, it is essential that you examine the statistical methodology utilized and identify any flaws in the contractor’s approach. We have successfully convinced both Qualified Independent Contractors (QICs) and ALJs to invalidate statistical extrapolations based on mistakes in the process committed by the ZPIC or PSC. Arguments can be legal and / or methodology-based. In many cases, it is necessary to engage the assistance of a qualified statistical expert. Should you succeed – be ready to defend this decision before the Medicare Appeals Counsel (MAC). Over the past year, practically every invalidation of the statistical extrapolation of damages was appealed to the MAC by the Administrative QIC (AdQIC).
Health care providers must be proactive in their efforts to better comply with applicable Medicare coding and billing practices. Should your practice be placed on pre-payment audit or have its post-payment Medicare claims reviewed, we recommend that you immediately contact your health care attorney for assistance.
Robert W. Liles and other Liles Parker attorneys have extensive experience representing health care providers around the country in large Medicare administrative overpayment appeals cases. We would be happy to discuss your case, give our initial assessment and provide client references for you to call. Should you have questions regarding RAC, ZPIC or PSC audit processes, you may contact us for a complimentary consultation. We can be reached at 1 (800) 475-1906.
(March 11, 2010): Medicare audits can be extraordinarily stressful for your organization. Are your documentation practices compliant? If not, you should take immediate steps to address any deficient practices you might have. New Medicare audits are on the way!
According to the White House, President Obama has announced that he intends to back bipartisan plans to stamp out waste in government-run medical programs for the elderly and needy. The White House said the new effort to root out improper payments in the Medicare and Medicaid programs could double taxpayer savings over the next three years to at least $2 billion.
I. The White House is Committed to Fighting Health Care Fraud and Abuse.
As the White House noted, “We cannot afford nor should we tolerate this waste of taxpayer dollars,” The government believes that approximately $54 billion was lost through improper Medicare and Medicaid payments in 2009. Medicare is the government-run program covering elderly Americans and Medicaid is for the country’s poorest.
President Obama is seeking to crack down on waste and fraud as his administration strives to secure an overhaul of the $2.5 trillion healthcare system to contain costs and expand coverage to tens of millions of more Americans. The action endorses Republican-backed proposals on alleged health care wrongdoers.
II. Are More RAC-Type Medicare Audits Ahead of Us?
The plan will offer private auditors a share of the money that they recoup in order to encourage them to work harder to uncover improper payments under Medicare and Medicaid. President Obama is also expected to back bipartisan legislation to expand the ability of government agencies to undertake these so-called payment recapture audits by providing more funds.
As many health care providers will readily attest, over the past year, it appears that there has been a marked increase in ZPIC post-payment Medicare audits, almost all of which are accompanied by demands for extrapolated damages. Once again, this points to the importance of sefl-assessment and an effective compliance strategy.
III. Steps You Should Take to Prepare for a Medicare Audit.
If you have not already done so, we strongly recommend that you implement an effective Compliance Plan — one that has been specifically designed to help present the “risks” that your practice face from day-to-day. Over the years, our firm has represented a number of health care providers around the country in an effort to improper claims denials overturned. This new risk will increase the likelihood that providers who have not been subjected to ZPIC or RAC audits in the past may now find themselves being examined by RAC-like auditors in the future.
Coupled with existing audit risks, sole practitioners, small practice groups and clinics will find their coding and billing practice under the spotlight. Unfortunately, based on recent cases we have handled, it appears that some ZPICs appear to impose their own views regarding what is required, well beyond the four corners of CMS-authorized provisions set out under LCDs and LMRPs covering the services at issue. Fortunately, when faced with the facts, ALJs have applied a reasonable approach.
We recommend that health care providers carefully review their documentation practices. How would your documentation look to you if you were in the place of an outside auditor? In order to lessen the likelihood that ZPICs, PSCs, RACs and other third-party reviewers will deny your claims — you need to fully understand and apply the coverage and payments which apply to your claims / services. Don’t wait until you are facing a Medicare audit. Take action now.